The nature and prevalence of insurance fraud has been studied only to a limited extent, even in the USA and Europe. Nevertheless, national authorities have pressed ahead with various approaches to control such fraud. This paper briefly outlines the nature and difficulties around measurement of insurance fraud and reviews key international trends in the regulation of fraud. It then presents the findings of an empirical study of insurance fraud in Taiwan and recent proposals for anti-fraud control. It analyses these findings in the context of actual practices of insurance companies which give evidence to the idea that moral hazard is embedded in the institutional arrangements, social relationships, and moral economies of private insurance.